Well I thought after a year or so on the forum I should put the info I had learned in one place for the other 16VT guys. I just wanted to keep it all in one place as I am forever looking back to old posts for the Tipo cam specs or Turbo specs. This information has come from many of you but thanks must go to Begbie, JMA, Barnacle, V666, Paulinho, cosmograph and Adyr – the list goes on…
Standard output on the 16VT is 195hp - from that base, the Stage 1 or basic tune will take you up to about 240-260hp (every car is different) - Stage 1 uses the standard motor internals and turbo. Stage 1 level of tune would go something like this: STAGE 1 Boost Gauge
- no horsepower but you need one to modify safely IMO. Can be mounted in a pillar mount or in the dash but I found it to be too hard to see in the dash (only permits quick looks) while racing. Kayjeys website has a fitting guide, though I would recommend the “Magic Grommet” under the wing panel to get the boost line into the cabin from the engine bay rather than through the door seals. Exhaust
– 3-inch mandrel for power. The 3-inch exhaust can drone and you may lose a very small amount of torque but for max power 3-inch seems to be the way to go, with a decat. Another option is the 2.5-inch for a compromise of noise vs. power with the decat. A 3-inch mandrel system without the cat will likely raise power 15hp due to better flow but it may kill your turbo seals over time, say 3-12months, due to lack of back pressure, although this is not conclusive - I run mine for 9 months without issue but it really depends on the condition of your turbo seals before the mod. ECU Chip
- the chip of choice for the 16VT seems to be the Evo cars chip – with a standard car it is good for 20-30hp I think. It raises boost to 1.35Bar (20PSI) and increase fuel to match on an otherwise standard engine but you really need a boost gauge first so that you can see what the chip is doing boost wise. A number of forum users have had stalling probs with this chip when the car is cold (first thing in the morning) - this seems to be a known problem with the cold plugs the chip requires, some others seem to have had no issues. It also calls for a 3-bar FPR which is difficult to fit, though some run without it. In order to fit it you either need to remove the intake plenum or throttle body, from memory. I have the 3-bar FPR and my car actually gets too much fuel. You really need to get the car RR'd after this mod to be sure fueling is fine. (this chip is available from Dink on the forum).
A standard 16vt should have the max boost at 11.6 psi (0.8 bar), it should overboost to 15.2 (1.05 bar) for a second or two and then fall down to the normal full boost of 11.6 psi (0.8 bar).
the vacuum should be between (0.6-0.8 bar) thats 8.7 - 11.6 psi in the negative scale.
with the evo chip the car should run on max boost at 17.4 psi (1.2 bar) and overboost with 21 psi (1.45 bar).Front Mount Intercooler
- horsepower gain comes from the fact that every 3C drop in charge temp is worth 1% power increase, therefore a 15C drop is 5% more power. It will also give you better spool up and you will get less pressure drop across the FMIC so a bit more boost to the motor. FMIC is a great mod IMHO and would be one of the first I would do just for piece of mind – and it looks good. The standard wing mount intercooler on the 16VT is not great at its job so below are some replacement options:
* MITSI EVO - I have the Evo 6 front mount intercooler Core size is
Evo 6 pic in place during fitting
And here is the how to guide from my fitting How to guide to fit a Mitsubishi Evo 6 FMIC to 16VT coupe
* PRO ALLOY - check the group buy of the pro alloy I'm fairly sure it will fit the 16vt with a bit of mod also - check the thread.
* PACE – wing mount intercooler is another upgrade – not too sure on the details of this one but can be an option for the 16VT I am told (not as good as a front mount though)Blow-Off Valve Replacement
- generally happens with the front mount - gives you the Pissssssh sound and should save your turbo better, no bhp increase thoughStraight Induction Modification
– using straighter pipe and pod filter you can gain faster turbo spool up and cooler intake temps with some clever ducting. Also creates the induction roar - mine is in the wheel well and is an Apexi Pod so likely in the range of 5hp increaseBoost Controllers
– Boost is controlled on the standard car by the EBV (electronic boost valve) which is a small cylinder in the LH end of the radiator. It has a single pipe into the top and 2 pipes into the bottom along with an electrical plug. These are o.k. but can give inconsistent boost, or worse fail, and give you only a base boost of .5 bar (7psi). It can be easily replaced however with either a PRV from Cosmograph, or an electronic boost controller. This lets you set your boost - I run .9bar. A wet setting (and with wife driving) makes about 210hp, and a 1.2-1.3 bar traffic light drag setting makes about 250hp-260hp.
* PRV, is basically a device which doesn’t allow boost to reach the wastegate until a set pressure is reached
* EBC (electronic boost controller) is an electronic solenoid generally controlled from inside the cabin and gives you the option to change boost with the turn of a dial (Apexi AVC-R, Blitz, Greddy are popular choices). Prices start at 85GBP and go up to 250-300GBP for the Apexi and Blitz units)Fuel Pump Upgrade
– it may be necessary to fit a Walbro 255-litre fuel pump in these early stages of tune if you find your car is running lean. The other option is to do the wiring mod which provides the fuel pump with a cleaner 12v source. V666 has done great guides for both, located here.
That is really the end of Stage 1 mods – at this point you should have 250-260hp. My car was making 253BHP allowing for a 15% transmission loss, any boost inctrease would not have given extra power as the turbo just can't flow moe than 1bar at above 4500rpm - the graph is below for the end of the Stage one mods on my car STAGE 2
Then the next mods would be:Tipo 16v Inlet Cam
- this cam change is said to be worth 10hp. Specs of the Tipo 16v cam are below (supplied to me but believe they are right) Part Number for the inlet 5dr cam is pn is : 7697190
In 1 deg/Ex 45 deg (226 duration) 10.15 mm lift
Integrale 16v cam (Coupe 16vt too):
In 8 deg/Ex 35 deg (223 duration) 8.6 mm lift
Thema 16v cam (N/A):
In 5 deg/Ex 54 deg (249 duration) 9.1 mm liftTubular Exhaust Manifold
- The standard manifold is restrictive in the same way that most factory log style manifolds are, approx 10hp can be gained by going to a tubular manifold with individual pipes from each cylinder straight to the collector to feed the turbo. Prices for these range from 550GBP to 1000GBP depending on the quality of the pipe and the design - Pipe size vary but are around 38mm-40mm - see the pics below Turbo Upgrades with the same, or very similar housings
- when upgrading to a bigger turbo please keep in mind that standard pistons are generally expected to only handle up to 300hp-320hp
* Standard Coupe 16V turbo is a trim 50 tb0367 (T3 not T28 as the 20v’s are) – this is the same unit as the Delta 2 HPE so that won’t be an upgrade.
Here is the Compressor map for the standard turbo with lbs/min requirements shown by revs
LINK TOO COME
The three lines are 1bar (2bar absolute), 1.2bar (2.2 on the graph), and 1.4bar (2.4 on the graph)
* Lancia Integrale Evo II turbochargers are similar to 16vt (they are both tb0367) but the compressor wheel is bigger (trim 60). This unit is good to about 280bhp. This should fit without any major mods. If you find an Evo II t3, get the exhaust elbow if possible. It's a lot bigger!
* Lancia Evo I and Integrale 16V turbochargers are bigger (and laggier ) but they can output 300bhp+. This should also fit without any major mods.
* Cosworth T3/4 - this I believe is the turbo Begbie was running originally. The turbo is a Cosworth T34 turbo unit and it’s larger than the 'grale 16v unit. It is a straight fitment onto the manifold and there’s no need to change the oil feeds / water feeds. The turbo is laggier to what you will be used to, but it is able to hold any boost up to 2-bar till redline if you so wish . Everything happens at 4k revs, but if you load up the turbo in a high gear with low revs you will see 1-bar of boost at around 2800rpmHybrid turbo info for the 16VT - UPDATE
There have been a heap of "what turbo should I get for the 16VT?" lately so I thought I would write a bit of a guide on some of the common options and add it here, these are my opinions though so take it as that, an opinion and don't PM me if you can't get the theoretical result.
the below assumes you can weld (or have it done) so you can change the exhaust downpipe (the bit of the exhaust the turbo bolts onto) to 5 bolt or 4 bolt as needed as it will give you more turbo options.
one of the questions I often get asked it "what does A/R mean? and what the best?" Understanding A/R's
Firstly you must understand A/R is only a ratio, I find an easy way to explain it is to think of a traffic cone and your exhaust gases flowing through it(a orange roadwork's type). Let's say the big hole at the bottom is the size of a T3 flange and let's say it's 100mm round (I know it is bigger but this makes it easy to explain), if you cut the top off the cone and the hole at the top is 30mm the A/R ratio would be .3a/r, if you then cut some more of the cone off and the hole at the top was 50mm it would be .5a/r - so a/r is the ratio between the exhaust housing inlet hole and the outlet for the gases onto the turbine (the "hotside").
The next point to note is a T4 turbo would have a larger hole at the bottom of the cone - let's say 150mm round, and you cut the top off this come to make a top hole of 60mm, the a/r would be .40a/r but it is obvious from the example above a .40a/r T4 in this example (150mm to 60mm) would flow more gases through it than the .5a/r t3 (100mm to 50mm), and a T28 would have a smaller hole at the flange again than a T3
So a/r is only a ratio and is hard to compare turbo family to family, anecdotally a GT28 .86a/r turbine housing (hotside) is about the same as a gt30 .63a/r, as the gt30 has a bigger inlet flange and by ratio a bigger hole at the turbine
Now the outlet for the gases (the smaller end of the a/r - or road cone) is where the turbo turbine is located and driven from. if the a/r is small, like the .3a/r T3 above as the gas forces through the 30mm hole after coming in the 100mm hole it is forced to travel at a higher speed and pushes hard against the turbine, turning it when there is very little flow coming in the bigger 100mm hole (ie when the motor is at low revs) - this would mean low lag and early boost, as you would not need much flow in the 100mm hole to get high gas speed at the 30mm to get the turbine turning (and making boost) on the other hand if the turbine end hole is 50mm you need more gas flowing into it to get enough gas speed to turn the turbine
So you say then, great I will have a small a/r and the turbo will start early, no lag, and be happy.
But there is a problem, when the engine is revving hard and the exhaust gases are coming into the inlet flange (the larger hole) fast and they cannot get out of the small hole against the turbine fast enough and you get backpressure, backpressure is bad for power up top and also puts alot more thermal stress on the motor (heat), if the hole is way to small you are effectively choking the motor as the exhaust gas can't get out. - just imagine driving a 2l turbo with a 1" exhaust, but if it is too big to limit backpressure you will have a lag monster
So selecting the right A/R is a balance between early power and top end power. this is also affected by the size and stage of turbine you run however - more on that later Hybrid T34 Turbos
"What is a t34 turbo? why would I want one?"
A T3/4 is a hybrid turbo every popular before the GT series turbo's came out and still a cheaper performance option, it uses a T3 family exhaust side turbine wheel (standard turbine size is 1.916"/2.320") and a T04 compressor wheel from either the "b" or "e" families, which are bigger wheels from a larger family of turbos. They can work very well for better than OE power outputs (280-400bhp) however selecting one is a balance. There is a risk that a bigger turbo down low can pump so much air the engine can't use it, this is called "compressor surge" and often happens at lower Revs on fast spooling turbo's. They can take longer to start making power as the compressor is not within it's efficiency window at low RPM (to understand this you need to be able to read compressor maps which is easy to learn on the Garrett site).
These bigger T04 wheels tend to be more efficient at higher revs, the standard coupe 16vt smaller T3 50trim compressor is near peak efficiency at around 4000rpm, a t04e 50 trim maybe nearer 6000rpm, so bigger wheels will make more power once they are on boost at higher revs, but may well lose out down low. In selecting a hybrid t3/4 you must decide which a/r exhaust side to use (top end power or mid range punch) and how much lag you can live with. Then match a t4 family compressor wheel to give you power at this point, and select a turbine to drive it in the most efficient manner, there is no point having a big a/r exhaust and a tiny compressor - the exhaust side would be all about top end and the compressor all about low down power and early response
It pays to know how to read compressor maps to get the most out of this thread, and any discussion on T3/4's, so if you are unsure please have a read of this guide by Garrett
While there are hundreds of turbo combo's so I have chosen a few of the common compressor options for the 16VT based on the older T3's turbo - rather than the new GT series, which surprising I don't get many questions about but are great turbos if you can afford themT3 series compressors
LINK STILL TO COME
The Standard Coupe 16V turbo is a Air research T3 "50 trim" TB0367 (note T3 not T28 as the 20v’s are). This has a .48a/r exhaust side with a standard stage 1 T3 turbine (lancia thema has .36a/r exhaust housing which is too small for the coupe) This turbo is designed for low end response, to come in early in the revs and really runs out of puff over 5000rpm, it is designed to be a good around town turbo, the max BHP on this turbo would be around 240-260bhp at circa 5500rpm. I personally have run this turbo to 245bhp with supporting mods
ADD link to Map
The next step up would be the T3 "60 trim", this can be found on the Lancia Integrale Evo II, this is still a TB0367 and the exhaust side is the same as the coupe (same turbine and housing) however the compressor is slightly larger, the regular "60 trim" is a 280bhp compressor wheel but this turbo is only a very small upgrade from the factory coupe turbo. However this should fit without any major mods. If you find an Evo II T3 be sure to grab the exhaust elbow as well. It's a lot bigger than the coupe one
ADD LINK TO PIC
Another popular choice is the T3 "super 60 trim" compressor wheel on either a .48a/r or .63a/r turbine side, the 4wd cosworth turbo has this compressor wheel (model TB0384). this wheel has been dyno proven on the coupe (thanks Nickd) to over 280bhp, based on the map it will max out at not far over this, for a standard engine with around town as it's primary use this is a good upgrade. Turbine size is 1.90" inducer, 2.367 exducer (60mm) so really still a fairly small wheel that will fit inside the OE compressor cover and keep everything looking standard.T04b Series compressors
There is really only one option in this family IMHO this is the T04b S-3 trim, these are old compressor and have very narrow operating ranges compared to modern compressors, great for boat diesels running at X rpm for hours but on cars there are better options. People will be upset by the above as some have made good power on these wheels, but in looking at the map below you can see peak efficenty is 73% and quickly fades to under 70%, the newer T04e wheels are up over 78% effcent and for much longer. I did run this wheel as my first upgrade but it did suffer compressor surge down low, it went well higher up, so likely is best suited to a larger a/r exhaust side that slows spool to avoid surge, To be honest though the T04e family is about 35years newer and IMHO a better option.
This wheel was used on the 80's/90's Escort cosworth on the larger exhaust side to go effect though apparently they were a bit on/off.
Below is the map for the S-trim wheel T04e Series compressors
These compressor run in the T04e compressor cover which is quite large compared to the standard T3 cover, it will only clear the gearbox by 5mm and the turbo will need to be removed if you need to removed the gearbox, for instance to do a clutch job.
This is the later version of the T04b wheels, while not quite up there with the GT series turbo's they show a much wider efficiency range than the T04b compressorsT04e 40 trim
, based solely on maps not worth considering on our engines as it is too small, won't flow 1.4bar well at 7000rpmT04e 46 trim
, Peak efficiency is at 5000rpm, will flow to 7000rpm and while a better size doesn't really stack up when compared to the 50trimT04e 50 trim
, very popular choice for tuners everywhere when mated to the T3 hotside, (just google it to see how popular it is) In the peak of its efficiency at 6000rpm where 78% efficient which is great for an none GT series turbo - compressor mapped below T04e 60 Trim
is mapped below but for our engines not as good a chioce IMHO, the surge line is less forgiving and the peak efficenty is no better than the 50 trim T3 Turbine Sizes
Often online the T04e 50 trim is mated to a "Stage 3 or Stage 5 turbine" - turbonetics make alot of turbo's like this, the stages basically just mean bigger turbines that flow better than the smaller one but also introduce lag
For instance a T04e 50 trim stage 3 .48a/r will flow better and be slower to spool than a T04e 50 trim on a standard turbine .48a/r exhaust side
T3 turbine sizes for the different stages are below (in inches), you only want a stage 1 or 2 on a standard engine or maybe stage 3 if you are happy with more lag
Stage 1 (1.916/2.320), Stage 2 (2.120/2.555), Stage 3 (2.227/2.555), Stage 5 (2.437/2.795).GT Series turbos
GT section to come but in the mean time here is the GT3076R mapped for the 16v engine, and just to show other optiuons the Borg Warner S256 and S258 units, but these are phyiscally larger turbos
If you are prepared to get a custom tubular exhaust manifold made so that you can change the turbo flange, then the turbo options increase dramatically. The turbo of choice seems to be the GT28RS with the .64 or .86A/R housing. This will flow a dyno-proven 329hp at 1.4-bar (Pietch’s car) but should be capable of 350hp plus with other supporting mods.Forged Pistons
– over 300-320hp it is wise to fit forged pistons. Cost of pistons is about $600-$1000US depending on brand. The pistons, I am told, are the same as Integrale 16V pistons so they should fit.Forged Rods
– standard rods are reputably able to handle 350hp but it maybe worth changing them for forged items while the motor is apart if you are planning to run big power or high revs, Forged rods are about 500GBP. Cranks
– the standard 16VT crank is a forged crank from the factory (I am told by Begbie) therefore it should not give trouble up to 400HP and beyond
Along with having the motor apart to fit all these forged parts you should look at having it balanced.
Beyond the above next is Headwork, racing valve springs, and having the head flowed
All the above BHP are guesstimates based on my experience but every car is different, and as always, modifying is done at your risk so get your motor "health checked" first by a specialist for compression etc Boost levels Questions - how much can I run before the motor cut?
Something interesting I just found out and thought I would add (this is theoretical and has not been tested but comes from a knowledgeable source).
My question was "Can I run more than 1.5bar on a standard 16VT assuming the motor will take it?" - the answer is below
The coupe 16VT is map-sensored rather than AFM like the 20VT - I asked if I could run over 1.5-bar for a coming track day, as ambient temps here at the moment are 5c during the day. I then found out the 16VT map-sensor can only read up to 1.5-bar before the motor cut comes in so thought about changing it to the Ford Cosworth 2-bar (3 bar absolute) sensor to run higher boost, however it doesn't look like this would work as below:
Changing the sensor to one which could read higher won't help you; the signal to the ECU will be either out of range anyway (if the new sensor has the same voltage output for the same pressure and therefore a higher voltage for over 1.5 boost) or it will be incorrect over its entire range (if it has the same final voltage output for its maximum boost).
If you want to run higher boost, you'll need two things: firstly, a sensor which can indicate the boost level and still be under the five volts that the ECU will recognise, and some serious reworking of the ECU.
It's not just a question of remapping the existing points; because you'll be working with effectively fewer points (i.e. there will be wider spaces between the reference points on the map, since the overall pressure range is higher) you may need to:
(a) remap to the new pressures
(b) change the offset parameters relating to pressure
(c) change the scaling algorithms
(d) change the safety algortihms
(e) fit larger injectors
(f) fit larger air filters
and probably more...
Your best bet is probably to rip the ECU out completely and replace it with an off-the-shelf racing ECU.